The history of computing hardware starting at is marked by the conversion from vacuum tube to solid-state devices such as transistors and then integrated circuit IC chips. By , discrete transistors were considered sufficiently reliable and economical that they made further vacuum tube computers uncompetitive. Metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS large-scale integration LSI technology subsequently led to the development of semiconductor memory in the mid-to-late s and then the microprocessor in the early s. This led to primary computer memory moving away from magnetic-core memory devices to solid-state static and dynamic semiconductor memory, which greatly reduced the cost, size, and power consumption of computers.
IBM Personal Computer - Wikipedia
This machine was an electromechanical program-controlled calculator composed of gears and axles, incapable of storing instructions or of performing conditional jumps. A costly exercise in obsolete technology, outmoded by the invention of ENIAC, the Mark I nevertheless gave IBM some valuable experience in the design and construction of large calculating machines. It contained 12, tubes and 21, electromechanical relays; the tubes carried out the arithmetic and stored a small amount of data and instructions eight twenty-digit decimal numbers while the relays served as a slower but larger internal memory numbers. Another 20, numbers were stored on sixty-six reels of punched tape.
Timeline: 50 Years of Hard Drives
The market is big". The Tandy —not completely PC compatible—quickly failed. Although the press saw the as former personal-computer leader Tandy admitting that it could no longer focus on proprietary products in a market the IBM PC dominated , the sold more units in the first month than any other Tandy product and by early was its best-selling computer. Although Tandy initially marketed the as a business computer like the IBM PC, InfoWorld stated in that the company "produced a real home computer". He's the only other person that's well-represented in the home market, and if he wants to abandon it, it's all right with me".
The topic - whether artificial intelligence would do more harm than good - was something each side had a big stake in because both were using the technology to deliver their arguments. Audience members at the society, which has hosted notable figures including British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the Dalai Lama, and Microsoft founder Bill Gates over its year history, were spellbound by its first non-human guest. After first pitting the technology against a human last year, IBM challenged it to present opposing arguments, in a display of its latest advances.